This website uses cookies to improve your experience. If you continue without changing your settings, you consent to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy. You can disable cookies at any time.


Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.


  • Behura, J., K. Wapenaar, and R. Snieder, 2012, Newton-Marchenko-Rose imaging: SEG.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Behura, J., K. Wapenaar, and R. Snieder, 2014, Autofocus imaging: Image reconstruction based on inverse scattering theory: Geophysics, 79, no. 3, A19–A26, doi: 10.1190/geo2013-0398.1.GPYSA70016-8033AbstractWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Ikelle, L. T., and L. Amundsen, 2005, Introduction to petroleum seismology: SEG.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Malcolm, A., M. De Hoop, and B. Ursin, 2011, Recursive imaging with multiply scattered waves using partial image regularization: A North Sea case study: Geophysics, 76, no. 2, B33–B42, doi: 10.1190/1.3537822.GPYSA70016-8033AbstractWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Malcolm, A. E., B. Ursin, and M. V. De Hoop, 2009, Seismic imaging and illumination with internal multiples: Geophysical Journal International, 176, 847–864, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03992.x.GJINEA0956-540XCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Schuster, G. T., J. Yu, J. Sheng, and J. Rickett, 2004, Interferometric/daylight seismic imaging: Geophysical Journal International, 157, 838–852, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02251.x.GJINEA0956-540XCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Shan, G., and A. Guitton, 2004, Migration of surface related multiples: Tests on the Sigsbee2B data set: SEG.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Slob, E., K. Wapenaar, F. Broggini, and R. Snieder, 2014, Seismic reflector imaging using internal multiples with Marchenko-type equations: Geophysics, 79, no. 2, S63–S76, doi: 10.1190/geo2013-0095.1.GPYSA70016-8033AbstractWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Wapenaar, K., and J. Fokkema, 2006, Green’s function representations for seismic interferometry: Geophysics, 71, no. 4, SI33–SI46, doi: 10.1190/1.2213955.GPYSA70016-8033AbstractWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Wapenaar, K., E. Slob, and R. Snieder, 2010, On seismic interferometry, the generalized optical theorem, and the scattering matrix of a point scatterer: Geophysics, 75, no. 3, SA27–SA35, doi: 10.1190/1.3374359.GPYSA70016-8033AbstractWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Wong, M., B. Biondi, and S. Ronen, 2012, Imaging with multiples using linearized full-wave inversion: SEG.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Wong, M., S. Ronen, and B. Biondi, 2011, Least-squares reverse time migration/inversion for ocean bottom data: A case study: SEG.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Zhang, Y., and J. Sun, 2009, Practical issues in reverse time migration: True amplitude gathers, noise removal and harmonic source encoding: First Break, 27, 53–60, doi: 10.3997/1365-2397.2009002.0263-5046CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Zuberi, A., and T. Alkhalifah, 2013, Imaging by forward propagating the data: Theory and application: Geophysical Prospecting, 61, 248–267, doi: 10.1111/1365-2478.12006.GPPRAR0016-8025CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  • Zuberi, M. A. H., and T. Alkhalifah, 2014, Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams: Geophysical Journal International, 197, 1582–1592, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt527.GJINEA0956-540XCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar